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When fluorosis is moderate, all of the surfaces of the teeth are mottled and teeth may be ground down and brown stains frequently "disfigure" the teeth. [17] The severity of dental fluorosis depends on the amount of fluoride exposure, the age of the child, individual response, weight, degree of physical activity, nutrition, and bone growth. Here is a breakdown of the different kinds of fluorosis, the severity levels, and the symptoms associated with each. Nervous breakdown and depression.• Urine is reddish yellow with less volume• Gastrointestinal problems are-recurrent constipation & diarrhoea, blood in stool and sudden pain in abdomen.• Calcification of muscle ligament and blood vessels• Reduced mental efficiency. No HTML formatting and links to other web sites are allowed. Dental FluorosisDental fluorosis is an irreversible cosmetic condition of teeth caused by intake of fluoride during developmental process of teeth. Pages 1-19, National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research, 9 percentage point increase in the prevalence of confirmed dental fluorosis, "HT Dean´s epidemiology of Mottled Teeth", "Dental fluorosis: exposure, prevention and management", "Distinguishing between enamel fluorosis and other enamel defects in permanent teeth of children", "Chronic fluoride toxicity: dental fluorosis", "Fluoride use in caries prevention in the primary care setting", "A systematic review of the efficacy and safety of fluoridation", "Environmental occurrence, geochemistry and exposure", "Surveillance for Dental Caries, Dental Sealants, Tooth Retention, Edentulism, and Enamel Fluorosis — United States, 1988–1994 and 1999–2002", "Prevalence and severity of dental fluorosis in the United States, 1999-2004", "Dental Fluorosis over Time: A comparison of National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey data from 2001-2002 and 2011-2012", "Prevalence and Severity of Dental Fluorosis in the United States, 1999–2004", "Table 23, Surveillance for Dental Caries, Dental Sealants, Tooth Retention, Edentulism, and Enamel Fluorosis --- United States, 1988--1994 and 1999--2002", Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ), American Dental Association Website accessed February 4, 2012, "Fluorosis: Causes, Diagnosis, Management and Prevention", "Public Health Reports, November 1, 1901: Denti di Chiaie (Chiaie teeth), by J.M. Dental fluorosis is a common cosmetic condition in which your teeth are discolored with tiny chalky white or, in severe cases, brown stains.. [23] A 2010 CDC report acknowledges an overall incidence of dental fluorosis of 22% from 1986-87 increased to 41% in the early 21st century, with an increase in moderate to severe dental fluorosis from 1% to 4%. Types of dental fluorosis. If a child has developed fluorosis, the appearance of the tooth enamel will change, usually becoming stained with white "splotches" or "streaking. In some cases, there may be varying degrees of negative psychosocial effects. Skeletal FluorosisUnlike dental fluorosis, skeletal fluorosis is a crippling disease with pain and deformity caused by excessive intake of fluoride. This is the time when most permanent teeth are being formed. Dental fluorosis is a common[2] disorder, characterized by hypomineralization of tooth enamel caused by ingestion of excessive fluoride during enamel formation. Types of Fluorosis: There are three types of fluorosis 1. It is thus improbable a person will receive more than the tolerable upper limit from consuming optimally fluoridated water alone. "[30], Dental fluorosis can be prevented by lowering the amount of fluoride intake to below the tolerable upper limit. The differential diagnosis for this condition includes: The two main classification systems are described below. [12] The pits, bands, and loss of areas of enamel seen in severe fluorosis are the result of damage to the severely hypomineralized, brittle and fragile enamel which occurs after they erupt into the mouth.[12]. Enamel fluorosis has a white opaque appearance which is due to the surface of the enamel being hypomineralised. [14], The most superficial concern in dental fluorosis is aesthetic changes in the permanent dentition (the adult teeth). More than one in five American teens (23%) have moderate to severe dental fluorosis on at least two teeth. Mild fluorosis appears as cloudy or pearly white lines, patches or marks on the surface of the tooth enamel. Fluorosis is a cosmetic condition that affects the teeth. There are two types of fluorosis, and they have different symptoms and side effects. The condition is more prevalent in rural areas where drinking water is derived from shallow wells or hand pumps. Perman… [citation needed] It is also more likely to occur in areas where the drinking water has a fluoride content greater than 1 ppm (part per million). While the Dean Index is still widely used in surveys of fluorosis — including the CDC’s national surveys of fluorosis in the United States — dental researchers have developed more finely tuned diagnostic scales. Crucial period of disease is 1 to 4 years but it can affect a person at any age. [1], People with fluorosis are relatively resistant to dental caries (tooth decay caused by bacteria),[2] although there may be cosmetic concern. This classification is utilised in those instances where a definite diagnosis is not warranted and a classification of ‘normal’ not justified. Fluorosis, chronic intoxication with fluorine (usually combined with some other element to form a fluoride) that results in changes in the skeleton and ossification of tendons and ligaments. What are the Performance Measures in ATM? Ingestion of excess fluoride, most commonly in drinking-water affects the teeth and bones. The types of fluorosis range from mild to severe, classed according to the visual appearance and physical surface of the tooth. Editor: MAR Buzalaf, Karger, Basel. Bonding or crowns are other methods to cover the discolouration of teeth.2. [8] Fluorosis does not cause discolouration to the enamel directly, as upon eruption into the mouth, affected permanent teeth are not discoloured yet. All enamel surfaces are affected and hypoplasia is so marked that the general form of the tooth may be affected. Dental Fluorosis Symptoms Mild forms of dental fluorosis can result in discoloration of teeth, usually appearing as white lace-like marks on the surface of teeth. [2][12] Fluoride may also indirectly alter the action of protease via a decrease in the availability of free calcium ions in the mineralization environment. Its caused by overexposure to fluoride during the first eight years of life. Frequently included in this classification are teeth showing no more than about 1 – 2mm of white opacity at the tip of the summit of the cusps, of the bicuspids or second molars. Fluorosis is a crippling disease resulted from deposition of fluorides in the hard and soft tissues of body. [20][citation needed] The last of these sources is directly or indirectly responsible for 40% of all fluorosis, but the resulting effect due to water fluoridation is largely and typically aesthetic. 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