Regrettably, I can't reply to every letter, but I greatly appreciate your feedback — especially notifications about typographical errors and inappropriate ads. Pope Gregory IX (Source: les.tresors.de.lys.free.fr) Gregory lived from 1145 to 1241, AD. He became dean of the Holy College of Cardinals in 1218 or 1219. The papal messengers were kindly received both by the Emperor Vatatzes and by Germanos, but the patriarchs said that he could make no concessions on matters of faith without the consent of the Patriarchs of Jersusalem, Antioch, and Alexandria. In this great distress the pope ordered all bishops to assemble in Rome for a general council at Easter (31 March), 1241. At the death of St. Dominic he held the funeral services and buried the saint at Bologna in 1221. This action once again divided the papacy and the empire. He conquered Cyrpus, but when he reached the Holy Land, he accepted the excommunication and his mission turned into a diplomatic one. The numerous letters of Gregory IX were first collected and published by Pamelius (Antwerp, 1572). In them he saw an excellent means for counteracting by voluntary poverty the love of luxury and splendour which was possessing many ecclesiastics; a powerful weapon for suppressing heresy within the Church; and an army of brave soldiers of Christ who were ready to preach His Gospel to the pagans even at the risk of their life. By order of the pope the legates freed Philip from the ban which he had incurred under Pope Celestine III on account of invading the Pontifical States. It was also at his command that Thomas of Celano wrote a biography of the saint (latest and best edition by d'Alencon, Rome, 1906). It was published by MURATORI in Rerum Italicorum Scriptores (Milan, 1728), III, i, 577-588. ." In addition to the MLA, Chicago, and APA styles, your school, university, publication, or institution may have its own requirements for citations. Upon the special request of Saint Francis, Pope Honorius III appointed him protector of the order in 1220. His father was Count of Segni and his uncle would become Pope Innocent III. Epist. But Frederick kept winning battles and extended his ambitions to include the Patrimony of St. Peter, the papal territory, and all of Italy. These codes of canon law are among his greatest accomplishments. In 1237 the Patriarch of the Syrian Monophysites and many of his bishops and monks renounced their heresy and submitted to the pope (Raynaldus ad annum 1237, n. 87 sq. Soon, the pope's problems with Frederick II began to escalate. ." Gregory IX recognized the importance of education and is credited with reintroducing Aristotle's teachings as the basis of scholastic philosophy. The pope, however, denying that an excommunicated emperor had a right to undertake a holy war, not only refused his blessing, but put him under the ban a second time and released the crusaders from their oath of allegiance to him. He also did much to alleviate the hard lot of the Christians in the Holy Land, and would have done still more, if his plans to recover the Holy Land for the Christians had not been frustrated by the indifference of Frederick II . In May, 1206, he succeeded Octavian as Cardinal-Bishop of Ostia and Velletri. Public Domain image. The emperor aimed at supreme temporal power with which the pope should have no right to interfere. But the papal anathema did not have the effect which Gregory IX had hoped for. He tried to justify his severe measures towards the emperor in a Brief to the Christian princes, while, on the other hand, the emperor addressed a manifesto to the princes in which he condemns the actions of the pope in very bitter terms. Gregory ordered all bishops to convene in Rome on March 31, 1241, but the emperor forbade the bishops to travel to Rome and his troops captured several of those who defied his order. They were successful in their mission and returned to Rome in June of the same year. Federal Tax Identification Number: 81-0596847. While Gregory wrote an encyclical to justify the excommunication, the emperor countered with a manifesto to the Christian princes condemning the actions of the pope. In 1231 Gregory IX established the papal inquisition to streamline proceedings against heretics. The papal messengers were kindly received both by the Emperor Vatatzes and by Germanos, but the patriarchs said that he could make no concessions on matters of faith without the consent of the Patriarchs of Jersusalem, Antioch, and Alexandria. To his credit, Gregory is considered to have been one of the most energetic popes of his time. September 1, 1909. The so-called Monastic Inquisition was established by Gregory IX, who in his Bulls of 13, 20, and 22 April, 1233, appointed the Dominicans as the official inquisitors for all dioceses of France (Ripoil and Bremond, "Bullarium Ordinia Fratrum Praedicatorum", Rome, 1729, I, 47).