The international situation was also favourable to the resurgence of nationalism. The legislature had virtually no control over the Governor-General and his Executive Council. Under this system some subjects, such as finance and law and order, were called ‘reserved’ subjects and remained under the direct control of the Governor; others, such as education, public health and local self-government, were called ‘transferred’ subjects and were to be controlled by ministers responsible to the legislatures. In my opinion, administration of the law is thus prostituted, consciously or unconsciously, for the benefit of the exploiter. It was against this all pervading fear that Gandhiji’s quiet and determined voice was raised: Be not afraid. Gandhi advised workers to go on a non-violent strike. Some historians have criticised it for mixing religion with politics. The act provided speedy trial of the offenses by a special cell that consisted of 3 High Court Judges. Immediately, the withdrawal of the Non-Cooperation Movement led to demoralisation in the nationalist ranks. At the same time, some of the older leaders now left the Congress. But I would consider that cost very cheap and victory won at that cost glorious. The two critics suggest that in presenting non-violence to the Jews as a remedy against the wrong done to them, I have suggested nothing new... What I have pleaded for is renunciation of violence of the heart and consequent active exercise of the force generated by the great renunciation.”. Moreover, the right to vote was severely restricted. But I refuse to be blown off my feet by any. Moreover, passive resistance does not necessarily involve complete adherence to truth under every circumstance. During this agitation, M.K Gandhi given famous quote “It is my firm belief that we shall obtain salvation only through suffering and not by reforms dropping on us from the English they use brute, we soul force”. In the application of satyagraha, I discovered in the earliest stages that pursuit of truth did not admit of violence being inflicted on one’s opponent but that he must be weaned from error by patience and compassion. They used to hold meetings, demonstrate, boycott etc. The years 1921 and 1922 were to witness an unprecedented movement of the Indian people. At the centre, there were to be two houses of legislature. The government decided to meet the popular protest with repression, particularly in the Punjab. Nonetheless, satyagraha played a significant role in the civil rights movement led by Martin Luther King, Jr., in the United States and has spawned a continuing legacy in South Asia itself. … Women will enjoy the same rights as men…. I would rather have India resort to arms in order to defend her honour, than that she should, in a cowardly manner, become or remain a helpless witness to her own dishonour.”. The Khilafat agitation had made an important contribution to the non-cooperation movement. And patience means self-suffering. Peasantry on the indigo plantations in Champaran, Bihar was excessively oppressed by the European planters. ), R. K. Prabhu & U. R. Rao, editors; from section, Gandhi, M.K. Das in June 1925. It is perhaps clear from the foregoing, that without ahimsa it is not possible to seek and find Truth. There was, of course, nothing wrong in the nationalist movement taking up a demand that affected Muslims only. As I read I became deeply fascinated by his campaigns of nonviolent resistance. He would, moreover, be utterly fearless. Rowlatt Act. As it was incomplete, I had coined the word satyagraha for the Gujarati readers. Earlier, the movement had confined its struggle to agitation. The first was Hindu-Muslim unity; the second, the fight against untouchability; and the third, the raising of the social status of women in the country. detailed illustrated notes covering entire syllabus, Important Facts of Indian History Ancient India: Part 1 to 3, Important Facts of Indian History Medieval India: Part 1 to 2, Important Facts to Know in History: Part 1 to 3, Indias Struggle for Freedom Administrative Organization of the British and Development of Education, Indias Struggle for Freedom Changes in Congress to Attain the New Objective and Assessing the Withdrawal, Indias Struggle for Freedom Contribution of Early Nationalists Methods of Work of Early Nationalists and Evaluation, Indias Struggle for Freedom Growth of Communalism Divide and Rule Muslim League and Nationalists Hindu Communalism, Indias Struggle for Freedom Important Persons Relating to the Revolt and Civil Rebellions and Tribal Uprisings, Indias Struggle for Freedom Champaran Satyagraha Ahmedabad Mill Strike Kheda Satyagraha and Jallianwala Bagh Massacre. The Act was passed on 18 March 1919.  In his words: Truth (satya) implies love, and firmness (agraha) engenders and therefore serves as a synonym for force. “The British people will have to beware,” declared Gandhiji at Nagpur, “that if they do not want to do justice, it will be the bounden duty of every Indian to destroy the empire.” The Nagpur session also made changes in the constitution of the Congress. The first notion was challenged by the moderate nationalists who developed a powerful economic critique of colonial rule. Thousands of peasants in Uttar Pradesh and Bengal had responded to the call of non-cooperation. He founded the Sabarmati Ashram to teach satyagraha. He had been asked by the government to come to India to encourage loyalty among the people and the princes. Immediately, Gandhiji gave a call for repetition of this resolution at hundreds of meetings. Print. Big meetings and demonstrations, refusal to cooperate with the government, boycott of foreign cloth and schools, or individual acts of terrorism were the only forms of political work known to the nationalists. Gandhi advised the peasants to withhold payment. On the contrary, at the Paris Peace Conference, and in the different peace settlements, all the wartime promises were forgotten and, in fact, betrayed. He himself took to fast, Owners yielded and gave a 35 percent increase in wages to the workers, Despite crop failure in Kheda the government insisted on full land revenue. The Jallianwala Bagh massacre shocked the entire nation with horror and fired patriotic minds with aggressive determination for vengeance. Introduction to the Struggle for Swaraj 2. Therefore, Mahatma Gandhi organised this movement to support the peasants of Kheda district. The resistance to authority in South Africa was well advanced before I got the essay of Thoreau on civil disobedience. The costs of the protracted war in money and manpower were great. But they failed to change the policies of the authoritarian Government of India and found it necessary to walk out of the Central Assembly first in March 1926 and then in January 1930. Instead of democratic progress had come further restriction of civil liberties. National schools and colleges were to be set up, Panchayats were to be established to settle disputes. General Dyer was called to control the situation. Another major consequence of the World War was the erosion of the White man’s prestige. But after their victory, they showed little willingness to end the colonial system. Govt. They were no longer willing to be satisfied with the shadow of political power. They warned that legislative politics would lead to neglect of work among the masses, weaken nationalist fervour and create rivalries among the leaders. But his place was soon taken by Gandhiji, C.R. He would accept suffering willingly in the course of struggle against the wrong-doer. The nationalist leadership, however, failed to some extent in raising the religious political consciousness of the Muslims to the higher plane of secular political consciousness. Anti-Rowlatt Satyagraha movement was started by Gandhi Ji against The Rowlatt Act,1919 for the exclusion of freedom of press and detention without trial set up a Satyagraha Sabha … These feelings found concrete expression on the Khilafat question. As Gandhi wrote: "They say, 'means are, after all, means'. Anti-Rowlatt Satyagraha movement was started by Gandhi Ji against The Rowlatt Act,1919 for the exclusion of freedom of press and detention without trial set up a Satyagraha … The nationalist agitation against the Rowlatt Act had touched all the Indian people alike and brought Hindus and Muslims together in political agitation. Even violence was preferable to cowardice. He surrounded the Bagh (garden) with his army unit, closed the exit with his troops and then ordered his men to shoot into the trapped crowd with rifles and machine-guns. It arms the individual with moral power rather than physical power. After the Jallianwala Bagh massacre on April 13, 1919 the Anti-Rowlatt Satyagarh lost momentum. In the context of satyagraha, Truth therefore includes a) Truth in speech, as opposed to falsehood, b) what is real, as opposed to nonexistent (asat) and c) good as opposed to evil, or bad. The whole population of Chirala, a town in that district, refused to pay municipal taxes and moved out of town. Accompanied by Babu Rajendra Prasad, Mazhar-ul-Huq, J.B. Kripalani, Narhari Parekh and Mahadev Desai, Gandhiji reached Champaran in 1917 and began to conduct a detailed inquiry into the condition of the peasantry. In March 1925, they succeeded in electing Vithalbhai J. Patel, a leading nationalist leader, as the president (Speaker) of the Central Legislative Assembly. Civil disobedience and non-cooperation as practised under satyagraha are based on the "law of suffering", a doctrine that the endurance of suffering is a means to an end. They filled the political void at a time when the national movement was recouping its strength. Gandhi, Mahatma. By the end of 1921 all important nationalist leaders, except Gandhiji, were behind bars along with 3000 others. The people now waited impatiently for the call for further struggle. For example, in 1915, referring to the common people who fought along with him in South Africa, in the course of his reply to an address of welcome at Madras, he said: You have said that I inspired these great men and women, but I cannot accept that proposition. On April 6, 1919, an all India strike was organized. Satyagraha immediately raised the movement to a new, higher level. “Letter to Mr. – ” 25 January 1920 (. Mass civil disobedience including the non-payment of taxes. There can be no room in such an India for the curse of untouchability. He formed the Satyagraha Sabha whose members took a pledge to disobey the Act and thus to court arrest and imprisonment. Therefore, in the non-violent technique I am asking India to risk no more than other countries are risking and which India would have to risk even if she offered armed resistance..